Educational Research is a systematic, objective and deliberate attempt to answer meaningful questions pertaining to educational process, forms, organization, and thoughts. Thus educational Research is an application of scientific methods to the study of educational problems or educational thoughts.
Classification of Educational Research can be done on the basis of its purpose.
- Basic or Fundamental Research: It is a formal and systematic process of deductive-inductive analysis leading to generation of new knowledge in the form of new theory, facts and truth.
- Applied Research: Applied Research adopts theories developed through fundamental research to the solution of problems. Applied research has most of the characteristics of fundamental research including the use of sampling techniques. But its findings are evaluated in terms of local applicability and not in terms of universal validity.
- Action Research: The research that is undertaken by practitioners to improve their practice is called Action Research. Action research is focused on immediate application rather than the development of theory or on generalization of applications.It is conducted by the teachers, supervisors and school administrators themselves for dealing with classroom problems and improving classroom practices.
- Descriptive Research: Descriptive research, unlike assessment and evaluation, is concerned with all of the following : hypothesis formulation and testing, the analysis of the relationships between variables, and development of generalization. All these differentiate descriptive research from assessment and evaluation. Although assessment and evaluation studies may include other characteristics of descriptive research, only descriptive research has generalisation as its goal.
- Assessment: Assessment is an activity to find facts that describe conditions that exist at a particular time. Base line achievement survey carried out by DPEP / SSA is an assessment to know the existing condition. In education, assessment may be concerned with the determination of progress that students have made toward educational goals.
- Evaluation : It is a process used to determine what has happened during a given activity or a programme. The aim of evaluation is to see if a given programme is working successfully and conducted according to the goal set for it. is a process used to determine what has happened during a given activity or a programme. The aim of evaluation is to see if a given programme is working successfully and conducted according to the goal set for it.